Marriages & families : changes, choices, and constraints / Nijole V. Benokraitis, University of Baltimore
Book | Pearson | 2018 | Ninth Edition.
Available at Gateway-Kenosha Campus Teacher Reserve (HQ 536 B4.5 2018)

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Ninth Edition.
xxiii, 552 pages : illustrated (color) ; 28 cm
Revised edition of tha author's Marriages & families, [2015].
1. The Changing Family
What Is a Family?
Some Traditional Definitions of the Family -- Some Current Definitions of the Family
How Are Families Similar Worldwide?
Family Functions -- Marriage -- Endogamy and Exogamy
How Do Families Differ Worldwide?
Family Structure -- Nuclear and Extended Families -- Residence Patterns -- Authority and Power -- Monogamy and Polygamy
Some Myths about the Family
Myths about the Past -- Myths about What Is Natural -- Myths about the Self-Sufficient Family -- The Myth of the Family as a Loving Refuge -- Myths about the Perfect Marriage, the Perfect Family -- Why Myths Are Dysfunctional -- Why Myths Can Be Functional
Three Perspectives on the Changing Family
The Family Is Declining -- The Family Is Changing, Not Declining -- The Family Is More Resilient than Ever
How Are U.S Familes Changing?
Some Demographic Changes -- Racial and Ethnic Diversity
Why Are U.S. Families Changing?
Micro-Level Influences on the Family -- Macro-Level Influences on the Family -- Micro/Macro Interconnections
A Multicultural, Cross-Cultural, and Global Perspective on the Family
Conclusion -- Review Questions
2. Studying the Family
Why Theories and Research Are Important in Our Everyday Lives
What We Don't Know Can Hurt Us -- Theories and Research Help Us Understand Ourselves and Our Families -- Theories and Research Help Us Make Informed Decisions
Theoretical Perspectives on Families
The Structural Functional Perspective -- The Conflict Perspective -- Feminist Perspectives -- The Ecological Perspective -- The Family Development Perspective -- The Symbolic Interaction Perspective -- The Social Exchange Perspective -- The Family Systems Perspective -- Combining Theories
Family Research Methods
Surveys -- Clinical Research -- Field Research -- Secondary Analysis -- Content Analysis -- Experiments -- Pulling It All Together: Evaluation Research and Meta-Analysis
Ethics, Politics, and Family Research
Ethical Research -- Political, Religious, and Community Pressures
Conclusion -- Review Questions
3. Historical and Contemporary Family Diversity
Early Roots: Colonial, American Indian, African American, and Mexican American Families
Colonial Families -- Early American Indian Families -- Early African American Families -- Early Mexican American Families
Family Life in teh 1800s and Early 1900s
European Immigrant Families -- Early American Families
The Early Modern Family
The Great Depression: 1929-1939 -- World War II: 1939-1945
The Golden Fifties and Transformative Sixties
The Golden 1950s - An Idyllic Decade? -- The Transformative 1960s
The Increasing Diversity of Families
Our Changing Immigration Mosaic -- Relations between Racial-Ethnic Groups -- Race and Ethnicity
Variations in Racial-Ethnic Families
Contemporary American Indian Families -- Contemporary African American Families -- Contemporary Latino Families -- Contemporary Asian American Families -- Contemporary Middle Eastern Families -- Strengths of Racial-Ethnic Families -- Interracial and Interethnic Families -- Growing Multiracial Diversity -- Interracial and Interethnic Dating and Marriage
Conclusion -- Review Questions
4. The Economy and Family Life
Work in U.S. Society Today
Deindustrialization, Globalization, Offshoring, and Labor Unions -- Social Class, Wealth, and Income
How the Economy Affects Families
Low-Wage Jobs and Nonstandard Work Hours -- Part-Time Work -- Unemployment -- Poverty -- Homelessness
Women's and Men's Participation in the Labor Force
Changes in the Workforce -- Why the Workforce Has Been Changing
Marital Economic and Family Roles
Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Work and Family Roles -- Economic Pressure and Work-Family Balance
Two-Income Families
Dual-Earner and Dual-Career Families -- Two Full-Time Working Parents -- When Wives Earn More -- Some Benefits and Costs of Two-Income Families
Inequality in the Workplace
Women and Minorities in the Workplace -- The Gender Pay Gap
Families and Workplace Policies
Family and Medical Leave Policies -- Pregnancy Discrimination -- Flextime -- Telecommuting
Conclusion -- Review Questions
5. Socialization and Gender Roles
How Women and Men Are Similar and Different
Is There a Difference between Sex and Gender? -- Other Gender Related Concepts
The Nature-Nurture Debate
How Important Is Nature? -- How Important Is Nurture? -- Current State of the Nature-Nurture Debate
Why Do Gender Roles Differ?
Sociobiology -- Social Learning Theory -- Cognitive Development Theories -- Symbolic Interaction Theories -- Feminist Theories
How Do We Learn Gender Roles?
Parents -- Play and Peer Groups -- Teachers and Schools -- Popular Culture and the Media
Gender Ideologies and Traditonal Gender Roles
Instrumental and Expressive Rolse -- Some Benefits and Costs of Traditional Gender Roles
Gender Roles in Adulthood
Gender and Family Life -- Gender and the Workplace -- Gender and Politics -- Gender and Education -- Gender and Religion -- Gender and Sports -- Gender and Language
Gender Inequality across Cultures
The Global Gender Gap Index -- Gender Inequality Worldwide -- Economic Opportunity and Participation -- Political Empowerment
Conclusion -- Review Questions
6. Love and Loving Relationships
Liking and Loving
Self-Love -- Friendship -- Friendship and Love
What Is Love?
What Are Some Characteristics of Love? -- What Attracts People to Each Other? -- Do Lust and Love Differ?
Caring, Intimacy, and Commitment
Caring -- Intimacy -- Commitment
Some Theories about Love and Loving
The Biochemistry of Love -- Attachment Theory -- Reiss's Wheel Theory of Love -- Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love -- Lee's Styles of Loving -- Exchange Theory
Functions of Love and Loving
Love Ensures Human Survival -- Love Enhances Our Physical and Emotional Health -- Love Is Fun
Experiencing Love
Are Women or Men More Romantic? -- Are Women or Men More Intimate? -- What Does Healthy Romance Look Like? -- What Are Some Obstacles to Experiencing Love?
When Love Goes Wrong
Narcissism: Play with Love -- Jealousy: Trying to Control Love -- Other Controlling Behavior
How Couples Change: Romantic and Long-Term Love
Some Characteristics of Romantic Love -- Love in Long-Term Relationships
Love across Cultures
Romantic Love -- Arranged Love
Conclusion -- Review Questions
7. Sexuality and Sexual Expression throughout Life
Sexuality and Human Development
Sexual Identity -- Sexual Orientation -- Sexual Scripts -- Sexual Self-Efficacy --- Sexual Knowledge
Why We Have Sex
First-Time Sex -- Casual Sex -- Sex in a Committed Relationship
Who Influences Our Sexual Behavior?
Parents -- Peers -- Religion -- The Media and Popular Culture -- School-Based Sex Education
Sexual Behaviors
Flirting -- Kissing -- Autoeroticism -- Heterosexual Oral, Anal, and Vaginal Sex
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Sex
Prevalence -- Sexual Attractions and Behaviors -- Societal Reactions to Homosexuality
Sexuality throughout Life
Virginity and Abstinence -- Sex and Adolescents -- Sex and Singles -- Marital Sex -- Sex during the Middle and Later Years
Sexual Infidelity
What Is Sexual Infidelity? -- How Common Is Sexual Infidelity? -- Why Are People Unfaithful? -- What Are Some Consequences of Sexual Infidelity?
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
How Widespread Are STIs? -- How Do People Spread STIs? -- Why Are STI Rates Rising? -- What Are Some Effects of STIs?
Conclusion -- Review Questions
8. Choosing Others: Dating and Mate Selection
Why Do We Date?
Manifest Functions of Dating -- Latent Functions of Dating
The Dating Spectrum
Traditional Dating -- Contemporary Dating -- Traditional-Contemporary Combinations -- Dating in Later Life
Meeting Others
Personal Classified Advertisements -- Mail-Order Brides -- Professional Matchmakers -- Speed Dating -- Online Dating
Why We Choose Each Other: Some Mate Selection Theories
Filter Theory: Homogamy and Narrowing the Marriage Market -- Heterogamy: Expanding the Marriage Market -- Social Exchange Theory: Dating as Give and Take -- Equity Theory: Dating as a Search for Egalitarian Relationships
A Multicultural View of Mate Selection
Traditional and Modern Societies -- Heterogamy and Homogamy -- Arranged Marriages -- How Mate Selection Methods Are Changing
Harmful Dating Relationships: Power, Control, and Violence
Power and Control in Dating Relationships -- Prevalence of Dating Violence -- Factors Contributing to Dating Violence and Date Rape -- Some Consequences of Dating Violence and Date Rape
Breaking Up
Why Do We Break Up? -- How Do We React? -- Is Breaking Up Healthy?
Conclusion -- Review Questions
9. Singlehood and Cohabitation
The Single Option
Are Americans Opting Out of Marriage? -- Many Singles Are Postponing Marriage -- Some Singles May Never Marry
Singles Are Diverse
Single Adults in General -- Single Adults in Later Life
Home Alone
Who Is Living Alone? -- Why Do People Live Alone?
Why More People Are Single
Macro-Level Factors -- Demographic Influences -- Individual Reasons -- Some Myths and Realities about Being Single
Racial and Ethnic Singles
African American Singles -- Latino Singles -- Asian American Singles
Cohanbitation Trends -- Types of Cohabitation -- Is Cohabitation Replacing Marriage? -- Who Cohabits? -- Some Benefits and Costs of Cohabitation -- Does Cohabitation Lead to Better Marriages? -- How Does Cohabitation Affect Children? -- Cohabitation and the Law
Same-Sex Couples
Same-Sex Relationships -- Cohabitation versus Same-Sex Marriages
Conclusion -- Review Questions
10. Marriage and Communication in Intimate Relationships
Is Marriage Disappearing?
Marriage Rates Have Been Declining -- Why U.S. Marriage Rates Are Falling
Why and How We Marry
Some Manifest Reasons for Getting Married -- Some Latent Reasons for Getting Married -- Wedding and Pre-Wedding Rituals
Contemporary Marriages
Opposite-Sex Marriages -- Same-Sex Marriages -- Some Cross-Cultural Variations
Marital Happiness, Success, and Health
Marital Happiness and Satisfaction -- Marital Success -- Marriage and Health -- Varying Health Benefits of Marriage
Marital Roles
Establishing and Negotiating Marital Roles -- Establishing Boundaries and Learning More Roles -- Adapting to Changing Marital Roles over Time
How Marriages Change throughout Life
The Early Years of Marriage -- Marriage and Children -- Marriage and the Midlife Years -- Marriage and Later Life
Communication: A Key to Successful Relationships
Why Effective Communication Is Important -- Effective Communication -- Communication Problems -- Power and Conflict in Relationships
What Couples Fight about and How to Deal with Conflict
Money -- Housework -- Fidelity and Sex -- Children -- Social Media -- How Couples Deal with Conflict
Productive Communication Patterns
Improving Your Communication Style
Conclusion -- Review Questions
11. Parenting: More Choices and Constraints
Whether to Be a Parent
Some Benefits and Costs of Having Children -- Abortion -- Child Free by Choice -- Infertility
Becoming a Parent: Adoption and Pregnancy
Adopting a Child -- Some Joys and Tribulations of Pregnancy
Becoming a Parent: Expectations, Realities, Transitions
Some Rewards and Difficulties of Parenting -- Motherhood: Expectations and Experiences -- Fatherhood: Expectations and Experiences -- Transition to Parenthood
Child Development Theories
Mead's Theory of the Social Self -- Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory -- Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development -- Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory of Development
Parenting Styles and Discipline
Parenting Styles -- Discipline
Parenting Variations by Race, Ethnicity, Social Class, and Sexual Orientation
Parenting across Racial-Ethnic Families -- Parenting and Social Class -- Parenting and Sexual Orientation
Parenting throughout Life
Parenting Infants and Babies -- Parenting Older Children -- Parenting Teenagers -- Parenting in the Crowded Empty Nest -- Parenting in Later Life
Conclusion -- Review Questions
12. Domestic Violence and Other Family Health Issues
Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse
Types of Intimate Partner Violence -- Prevalence and Severity of Intimate Partner Violence -- Some Characteristics of Abusive and Violent Households -- Violence among Same-Sex Couples -- Marital Rape -- The Cycle of Domestic Violence -- Why Do Women Stay? -- How Intimate Partner Violence Affects Victims -- Women Who Abused Men
Child Maltreatment
What Is Child Maltreatment? -- Prevalence and Characteristics of Child Maltreatment -- Sexual Abuse and Incest -- Why Do Adults Abuse Children? -- How Abuse Affects Children and Adults
Sibling Aggression, Violence, and Abuse
Physical and Emotional Abuse -- Sexual Abuse
Elder Mistreatment
What Is Elder Mistreatment? -- Who Are the Victims? -- Who Are the Abusers? -- Why Do They Do It? -- Some Outcomes of Elder Abuse
Explaining Family Abuse and Violence
Feminist Theories -- Social Learning Theory -- Resource Theory -- Social Exchange Theory -- Ecological Systems Theory -- Using Several Theories
Combating Domestic Violence
Prevention -- Intervention
Other Family Health Issues
Lifestyle Choices -- Depression and Suicide
Conclusion -- Review Questions
13. Separation, Divorce, Remarriage, and Stepfamilies
Separation: Process and Outcome
The Phases of Separation -- Some Outcomes of Marital Separation
Divorce: Process and Rates
The Process of Divorce -- Divorce Rates
Why Do People Divorce?
Macro-Level Reasons for Divorce -- Demographic Variables and Divorce -- Micro-Level Reasons for Divorce
How Divorce Affects Adults
Physical, Emotional, and Psychological Effects -- Economic Effects -- Child Custody -- Child Support
How Divorce Affects Children
What Hurts Children before, during, and after Divorce? -- What Helps Children before, during, and after Divorce? -- Some Positive Divorce Outcomes for Children
Remarriage: Prevalence, Process, and Characteristics
How Common Is Remarriage? -- Remarriage as a Process -- Remarriage Satisfaction -- Remarriage Stability
The Diversity and Complexity of Stepfamilies
What Is a Stepfamily? -- Types of Stepfamilies -- Some Demographic Characteristics of Stepfamilies -- Same-Sex Stepfamilies -- How Stepfamilies and Nuclear Families Differ
Living in a Stepfamily
Parenting in Stepfamilies -- Stepparent-Stepchild Relationships -- How Stepfamilies Affect Children -- Some Characteristics of Successful Stepfamilies
Conclusion -- Review Questions
14. Families in Later Life
Our Aging Society
When Is "Old"? -- Life Expectancy -- A Growing Older Population -- Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity -- Marital Status and Living Arrangements
Health and Ageism
Physical Health -- Mental Health -- Ageism and Stereotypes
Economic Security, Work, and Retirement
Working Longer -- Variations in Retirement Income
Grandparenting Styles -- Grandparents as Surrogate Parents -- Grandparents' Divorce
Dying, Death, and Bereavement
Experiencing Death and Dying -- Hospice Care -- The Right to Die with Dignity -- Coping with Death
Later-Life Divorce, Widowhood, and Repartnering
Marriage and Divorce -- Widowhood -- Repartnering and Forging New Relationships
Family Caregiving in Later Life
Who Are the Recipients and Caregivers? -- Caregiving Styles -- Caregiving Satisfactions and Strains
Competition for Scarce Resources
Some Financial Costs of an Aging Society -- Are There Any Solutions?
Conclusion -- Review Questions
Welcome to the ninth edition of 'Marriages & Families: Changes, Choices, and Constraints!' As in the past, this text's basic premise is that up-to-date research and statistics can help us better understand the families in which we were raised and are forming ourselves. The significance of families extends beyond personal experience, however. Our marriages and families affect and are affected by larger social structures such as the economy, politics, education, religion, health care systems, and military organizations.
Added Author
Buehler, Cheryl.
Added Title
Marriages and families
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